HIV infection, inflammation, immunosenescence, and aging

Annu Rev Med. 2011;62:141-55. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042909-093756.

Abstract

Although antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection prevents AIDS-related complications and prolongs life, it does not fully restore health. Long-term treated patients remain at higher than expected risk for a number of complications typically associated with aging, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, and other end-organ diseases. The potential effect of HIV on health is perhaps most clearly exhibited by a number of immunologic abnormalities that persist despite effective suppression of HIV replication. These changes are consistent with some of the changes to the adaptive immune system that are seen in the very old ("immunosenescence") and that are likely related in part to persistent inflammation. HIV-associated inflammation and immunosenescence have been implicated as causally related to the premature onset of other end-organ diseases. Novel therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing or reversing these immunologic defects may be necessary if HIV-infected patients are to achieve normal life span.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / genetics
  • Aging / immunology*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / immunology
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • Bone Diseases / immunology
  • Bone Diseases / virology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / immunology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / virology
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immune System / virology
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Inflammation / virology*
  • Intra-Abdominal Fat / immunology
  • Intra-Abdominal Fat / virology
  • Kidney Diseases / immunology
  • Kidney Diseases / virology
  • Liver Diseases / immunology
  • Liver Diseases / virology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / immunology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / virology
  • Mitochondrial Diseases / immunology
  • Mitochondrial Diseases / virology
  • Neoplasms / immunology
  • Neoplasms / virology
  • Nervous System Diseases / immunology
  • Nervous System Diseases / virology
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / virology
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Anti-HIV Agents