Mechanisms of gender-specific regulation of mouse sulfotransferases (Sults)

Xenobiotica. 2011 Mar;41(3):187-97. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2010.535923. Epub 2010 Nov 23.


1. Marked gender differences in the expression of sulfotransferases (Sults) are known to exist in several species including rats, mice and hamsters. However, the mechanism for this gender difference is not known. Therefore, in the present study, it was determined whether sex and/or growth hormone (GH) are responsible for the gender difference in the expression of Sults using gonadectomized (GNX), hypophysectomized (HX) and GH-releasing hormone receptor-deficient little (lit/lit) mouse models. 2. Sult1a1 and Papss2 in liver and kidney, and Sult1d1 in liver are female-predominant in mice because of suppressive effects of both androgens and male-pattern GH secretion. Sult2a1/a2 is the most markedly female-predominant Sult in mouse liver due to suppressive effects of androgens and male-pattern GH secretion, as well as stimulatory effects by estrogens and female-pattern GH secretion. Sult3a1 is female-predominant in mouse liver due to suppressive effects of androgens as well as stimulatory effects of estrogens and female-pattern GH secretion. Sult1c1 expression is male-predominant in mouse liver and kidney because of stimulatory effects of androgens in males. Sult4a1 expression is female-predominant in mouse brain due to stimulatory effects of estrogens. 3. In conclusion, gender-divergent Sults are mostly female-predominant and Sult1c1 is the only male-dominant Sult. The gender differences in expression of various mouse Sults are influenced by various mechanisms involving sex and/or GHs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*
  • Growth Hormone / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Sex Factors
  • Sulfate Adenylyltransferase / genetics
  • Sulfate Adenylyltransferase / metabolism
  • Sulfotransferases / genetics
  • Sulfotransferases / metabolism*


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Growth Hormone
  • Sulfate Adenylyltransferase
  • Sulfotransferases