Anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl acetate extract from Cissus quadrangularis Linn may be involved with induction of heme oxygenase-1 and suppression of NF-κB activation

J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Feb 16;133(3):1008-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.029. Epub 2010 Nov 19.


Aim of the study: Cissus quadrangularis (family: Vitaceae) has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of hemorrhoids, gastric ulcers and bone healing. In the present study, we determined the anti-inflammatory activity and the molecular mechanism of the ethyl acetate extract of Cissus quadrangularis stem (CQE) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

Materials and methods: The inhibitory effect of CQE on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated in conditioned media. Cell viability was monitored by MTT assay. Protein and mRNA expressions were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis, respectively.

Results: CQE potently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were suppressed also by CQE as was p65 NF-κB nuclear translocation. Further study demonstrated that CQE by itself induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression at the protein and mRNA levels in dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the inhibitory effects of CQE on NO production were abrogated by a HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP).

Conclusions: Collectively, these results suggest that CQE exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in macrophages, at least in part, through the induction of HO-1 expression. These findings provide the scientific rationale for anti-inflammatory therapeutic use of Cissus quadrangularis stem.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetates / chemistry*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Line
  • Cissus / chemistry*
  • DNA Primers
  • Enzyme Induction
  • Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) / biosynthesis*
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


  • Acetates
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • DNA Primers
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • Plant Extracts
  • ethyl acetate
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)