Nanomedicine and personalized medicine toward the application of pharmacotyping in clinical practice to improve drug-delivery outcomes

Nanomedicine. 2011 Feb;7(1):11-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2010.11.002. Epub 2010 Nov 19.


Recent technological advances in nanomedicine and nanotechnology in parallel with knowledge accumulated from the clinical translation of disease- and drug-related genomic data have created fertile ground for personalized medicine to emerge as the new direction in diagnosis and drug therapy. To this end, the development of sophisticated nano-based systems for targeted drug delivery, along with the advent of pharmacogenomics, moves the drug-prescription process toward pharmacotyping, e.g., the individualized adjustment of drug selection and dosage. However, the clinical validity and utility of pharmacogenomic testing must be demonstrated by cost-effectiveness analysis and establishment of clinical-practice reimbursement codes. Within this framework, and to achieve major benefits for all patients worldwide, a multidisciplinary scientific and technological infrastructure has to be organized in the healthcare system to address better the issues affecting regulatory environment, clinical pharmacology guidelines, education, bioethics and genomics data dissemination.

From the clinical editor: Individualized pharmacotyping, patient and disease-specific delivery of drugs, combining nanotechnology and pharmagenomics-based approaches would result in much more specific and efficient treatment of a variety of illnesses. While this clearly is one of the main cornerstones of individualized medicine; the cost effective integration of this complex technology is far from trivial, as discussed in details in this opinion paper.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Nanomedicine / methods*
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Precision Medicine / methods*