Antigenic drift is the ability of the swine influenza virus to undergo continuous and progressive changes in response to the host immune system. These changes dictate influenza vaccine updates annually to ensure inclusion of antigens of the most current strains. The identification of those peptides that stimulate T-cell responses, termed T-cell epitopes, is essential for the development of successful vaccines. In this study, the highly conserved and specific epitopes from neuraminidase of globally distributed H1N1 strains were predicted so that these potential vaccine candidates may escape with antigenic drift. A total of nine novel CD8(+) T-cell epitopes for MHC class-I and eight novel CD4(+) T-cell epitopes for MHC class-II alleles were proposed as novel epitope based vaccine candidates. Additionally, the epitope FSYKYGNGV was identified as a highly conserved, immunogenic and potential vaccine candidate, capable for generating both CD8(+) and CD4(+) responses.
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