Aim: The objectives of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility and effect on glycaemic control of a low-glycaemic-index (GI) diet in women with gestational diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance of pregnancy.
Methods: participants, recruited from the Diabetes-in-Pregnancy Clinic of an inner-city teaching hospital serving a predominantly non-Caucasian population, were randomized to a low-GI (n=23) or control (n=24) diet and followed from 28 weeks gestation until delivery. Self-monitored-blood-glucose (SMBG), maternal and infant weight were collected from medical charts. Dietary intakes were assessed using diet records and questionnaires.
Results: diet GI on control (58, 95% CI: 56,60) was significantly higher than on low-GI (49, 95% CI: 47,51; p=0.001). Glycaemic control improved on both diets, but more postprandial glucose values were within target on low-GI (58.4% of n=1891) than control (48.7% of n=1834; p<0.001). SMBG post-breakfast was directly related to pre-pregnancy BMI in the control, but not the low-GI group (BMI*diet interaction; p=0.021). Participants accepted the study foods and were willing to consume them post-intervention.
Conclusions: a low-GI diet was feasible and acceptable in this sample and facilitated control of postprandial glucose. A larger study is needed to determine the effect of a low-GI diet on maternal and infant outcomes.
2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.