The occurrence of hemorrhagic disease due to vitamin K (VK) deficiency beyond the neonatal period has come under investigation in Japan. In 1980 the 1st nationwide survey was conducted in Japan by Nakayama and others, and was followed by the 2nd nationwide survey in 1985 by Hanawa. The present survey was designed to further monitor the incidence of this disease in Japan during the 3-year period from July 1985 to June 1988. Questionnaires were sent to 1,315 hospitals having more than 200 beds, located throughout Japan. Responses were received from 775 hospitals, for an answer rate of 58.9%. The total number of reported cases was 175, including 129 idiopathic type, 28 secondary type and 18 near-miss type. In this survey it was revealed that the incidence rate of the idiopathic type of vitamin K deficiency in infancy (VKDI) has decreased remarkably, to about one-fourth that reported in the first survey. The declining incidence rate of VK deficiency in Japan is considered to be the result of ever more widespread prophylactic administration of VK during the neonatal period, as most occurrences of VK deficiency in infancy are preventable by prophylactic administration of VK from the neonatal period. However, in 16 cases of the idiopathic type of VK deficiency found in the present survey, VK had been administered at least once during or after the neonatal period. This shows the heterogeneity of this condition.