The parasitic roundworm Toxocara canis is present in dog populations all over the world. Due to its zoonotic potential, this roundworm is of special interest not only for veterinarians, but also for medical practitioners. In the present review, current knowledge of infection routes and the subsequent development of larvae within the canine host is summarised. Furthermore, information about the clinical, pathological, enzymatic, haematological and histopathological changes was collected, giving a broad overview of current knowledge of the infection. Although the data collected over the years give an idea of what happens during the larval development of T. canis, many questions remain open. Nevertheless, it is important that we continue our efforts to further understand the biology of this versatile and compelling parasite and try to improve and optimise strategies to prevent the infection in dogs and thereby to protect humans from this infection.
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