Avian-specific TLRs and downstream effector responses to CpG-induction in chicken macrophages

Dev Comp Immunol. 2011 Mar;35(3):392-8. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2010.11.012. Epub 2010 Nov 30.


Chickens possess toll-like receptor (TLR15), a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) absent in mammals. We characterized the regulation and mechanism of CpG responsiveness via TLRs in chicken macrophage HD11 cells. TLR15 was significantly upregulated after induction with B- and C-type CpG oligonucleotides (ODN), tripalmitoylated lipopeptide (PAM3CSK4), Escherichia coli- and Salmonella enteritidis-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In response to CpG-ODN inhibitor, TLR15 and IL1B were downregulated, but TLR21 was upregulated. IL1B was upregulated with CpG-ODN and downregulated after inhibitor treatment. The results suggest that responsiveness to different types of CpG-ODN in chicken macrophages requires multiple receptors, each with unique variation in expression. We utilized RNA interference (RNAi) technology to examine myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD88) dependency of TLR15 and TLR21. HD11 macrophages transfected with multiple MyD88-target siRNAs exhibited 70% decrease in MyD88 mRNA expression. IL1B was upregulated with CpG induction in cells with no reduction of MyD88 mRNA levels, but not in cells with 70% MyD88 reduction. Therefore, induction through TLR15 in response to CpG-ODN operates via the MyD88-dependent pathway in chicken macrophages.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Chickens / genetics*
  • Chickens / immunology
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • Macrophages / immunology*
  • Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 / immunology
  • Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 / metabolism
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides / immunology*
  • RNA Interference
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Signal Transduction / immunology*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism*


  • CPG-oligonucleotide
  • Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Toll-Like Receptors