Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is increasingly being offered to patients with coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of this change in coronary revascularization strategy on PCI and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) utilization across Canada.
Methods: All cases of PCI and isolated CABG between years 1994 and 2005 were identified through the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Age- and sex-standardized rates of PCI and CABG per 100,000 population as well as PCI-to-CABG ratios were calculated by year and province and across age, sex, income, diabetes, and recent acute coronary syndrome subgroups. In addition, risk-adjusted rates of in-hospital mortality after PCI and CABG were reported by year.
Results: Between 1994 and 2005, PCI rates increased from 85.6/100,000 to 186.7/100,000 (P < .001), whereas CABG rates remained stable (75.6/100,000-70.8/100,000; P = .43), resulting in an increase in PCI-to-CABG ratio (1.13-2.64; P < .001). Significant increases in PCI-to-CABG ratios were seen across all provinces (except Newfoundland and Alberta), as well as across all age, sex, income, diabetes, and recent acute coronary syndrome categories. Decline in risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was seen after both CABG (3.9%-2.2%; P < .001) and PCI (1.6%-1.3%; P < .001) but appeared larger after CABG.
Conclusions: Since 1994, rates of PCI have increased significantly as compared to CABG. During the same period, greater declines in risk-adjusted rates of in-hospital mortality were seen among CABG versus PCI patients. Further study is needed to determine the appropriateness of PCI and CABG rates in terms of clinical outcomes and resource utilization.
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