Whole-genome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium T000240 reveals the acquisition of a genomic island involved in multidrug resistance via IS1 derivatives on the chromosome

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Feb;55(2):623-30. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01215-10. Epub 2010 Nov 22.


Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is frequently associated with life-threatening systemic infections, and the recent global emergence of multidrug resistance in S. enterica isolates from agricultural and clinical settings has raised concerns. In this study, we determined the whole-genome sequence of fluoroquinolone-resistant S. enterica serovar Typhimurium T000240 strain (DT12) isolated from human gastroenteritis in 2000. Comparative genome analysis revealed that T000240 displays high sequence similarity to strain LT2, which was originally isolated in 1940, indicating that progeny of LT2 might be reemerging. T000240 possesses a unique 82-kb genomic island, designated as GI-DT12, which is composed of multidrug resistance determinants, including a Tn2670-like composite transposon (class 1 integron [intI1, bla(oxa-30), aadA1, qacEΔ1, and sul1], mercury resistance proteins, and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase), a Tn10-like tetracycline resistance protein (tetA), the aerobactin iron-acquisition siderophore system (lutA and lucABC), and an iron transporter (sitABCD). Since GI-DT12 is flanked by IS1 derivatives, IS1-mediated recombination likely played a role in the acquisition of this genomic island through horizontal gene transfer. The aminoglycoside-(3)-N-acetyltransferase (aac(3)) gene and a class 1 integron harboring the dfrA1 gene cassette responsible for gentamicin and trimethoprim resistance, respectively, were identified on plasmid pSTMDT12_L and appeared to have been acquired through homologous recombination with IS26. This study represents the first characterization of the unique genomic island GI-DT12 that appears to be associated with possible IS1-mediated recombination in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. It is expected that future whole-genome studies will aid in the characterization of the horizontal gene transfer events for the emerging S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosomes, Bacterial / genetics*
  • DNA Transposable Elements / genetics*
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial / genetics*
  • Genome, Bacterial / genetics
  • Genomic Islands / genetics*
  • Genomics / methods*
  • Humans
  • Integrons / genetics
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Recombination, Genetic
  • Salmonella typhimurium / drug effects*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • DNA Transposable Elements