Mechanisms of cAMP/PKA-induced meiotic arrest in oocytes are not completely identified. In cultured, G2/M-arrested PDE3A(-/-) murine oocytes, elevated PKA activity was associated with inactivation of Cdc2 and Plk1, and inhibition of phosphorylation of histone H3 (S10) and of dephosphorylation of Cdc25B (S323) and Cdc2 (Thr14/Tyr15). In cultured WT oocytes, PKA activity was transiently reduced and then increased to that observed in PDE3A(-/-) oocytes; Cdc2 and Plk1 were activated, phosphorylation of histone H3 (S10) and dephosphorylation of Cdc25B (S323) and Cdc2 (Thr14/Tyr15) were observed. In WT oocytes, PKAc were rapidly translocated into nucleus, and then to the spindle apparatus, but in PDE3A(-/-) oocytes, PKAc remained in the cytosol. Plk1 was reactivated by incubation of PDE3A(-/-) oocytes with PKA inhibitor, Rp-cAMPS. PDE3A was co-localized with Plk1 in WT oocytes, and co-immunoprecipitated with Plk1 in WT ovary and Hela cells. PKAc phosphorylated rPlk1 and Hela cell Plk1 and inhibited Plk1 activity in vitro. Our results suggest that PKA-induced inhibition of Plk1 may be critical in oocyte meiotic arrest and female infertility in PDE3A(-/-) mice.