Background: Recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in European descent samples identified novel loci influencing glucose and insulin related traits. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the association between these loci and traits related to glucose metabolism in the Chinese.
Methods/principal findings: We genotyped seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from fifteen loci including GIPR, ADCY5, TCF7L2, VPS13C, DGKB, MADD, ADRA2A, FADS1, CRY2, SLC2A2, GLIS3, PROX1, C2CD4B, SLC30A8 and IGF1 in 6,822 Shanghai Chinese Hans comprising 3,410 type 2 diabetic patients and 3,412 normal glucose regulation subjects. MADD rs7944584 showed strong association to type 2 diabetes (p = 3.5×10(-6), empirical p = 0.0002) which was not observed in the European descent populations. SNPs from GIPR, TCF7L2, CRY2, GLIS3 and SLC30A8 were also associated with type 2 diabetes (p = 0.0487∼2.0×10(-8)). Further adjusting age, gender and BMI as confounders found PROX1 rs340874 was associated with type 2 diabetes (p = 0.0391). SNPs from DGKB, MADD and SLC30A8 were associated with fasting glucose while PROX1 rs340874 was significantly associated with OGTT 2-h glucose (p = 0.0392∼0.0014, adjusted for age, gender and BMI), the glucose-raising allele also showed association to lower insulin secretion. IGF1 rs35767 showed significant association to both fasting and 2-h insulin levels as well as insulin secretion and sensitivity indices (p = 0.0160∼0.0035, adjusted for age, gender and BMI).
Conclusions/significance: Our results indicated that SNPs from GIPR, TCF7L2, DGKB, MADD, CRY2, GLIS3, PROX1, SLC30A8 and IGF1 were associated with traits related to glucose metabolism in the Chinese population.