To better understand the presumed immune system dysregulation of chronic dysimmune neuropathy (CDN) patients, we designed a study to evaluate the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the most common forms of CDN: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG)-related polyneuropathy (MAGnp). Sixteen patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria for CIDP, 14 were diagnosed with MAGnp, and 36 were classified as exhibiting "chronic idiopathic polyneuropathy" (CIP). Cytokine production in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed by flow cytometry. CIDP and MAGnp patients were compared with CIP patients, those with monoclonal gammopathy without polyneuropathy (MGUS), and healthy controls (HC). We observed an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CIDP group, whereas interleukin-10 (IL-10) was augmented in the MAGnp patients. These distinctive immune alterations may represent a biological tool in differential diagnosis and future therapeutic approaches.