Implications of the Polymorphism of HLA-G on Its Function, Regulation, Evolution and Disease Association

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011 Feb;68(3):369-95. doi: 10.1007/s00018-010-0580-7. Epub 2010 Nov 24.

Abstract

The HLA-G gene displays several peculiarities that are distinct from those of classical HLA class I genes. The unique structure of the HLA-G molecule permits a restricted peptide presentation and allows the modulation of the cells of the immune system. Although polymorphic sites may potentially influence all biological functions of HLA-G, those present at the promoter and 3' untranslated regions have been particularly studied in experimental and pathological conditions. The relatively low polymorphism observed in the MHC-G coding region both in humans and apes may represent a strong selective pressure for invariance, whereas, in regulatory regions several lines of evidence support the role of balancing selection. Since HLA-G has immunomodulatory properties, the understanding of gene regulation and the role of polymorphic sites on gene function may permit an individualized approach for the future use of HLA-G for therapeutic purposes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases / genetics
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology
  • Base Sequence
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • HLA Antigens / chemistry
  • HLA Antigens / genetics*
  • HLA Antigens / immunology
  • HLA Antigens / metabolism
  • HLA-G Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / chemistry
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / genetics*
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / immunology
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neoplasms / genetics
  • Neoplasms / immunology
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Transplantation Immunology
  • Virus Diseases / etiology
  • Virus Diseases / genetics
  • Virus Diseases / immunology

Substances

  • HLA Antigens
  • HLA-G Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I