Gene-expression profiles of epithelial cells treated with EMD in vitro: analysis using complementary DNA arrays

J Periodontal Res. 2011 Feb;46(1):118-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2010.01321.x. Epub 2010 Nov 26.


Background and objective: During surgical periodontal treatment, EMD is topically applied in order to facilitate regeneration of the periodontal ligament, acellular cementum and alveolar bone. Suppresion of epithelial down-growth is essential for successful periodontal regeneration; however, the underlying mechanisms of how EMD influences epithelial wound healing are poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of EMD on gene-expression profiling in an epithelial cell line (HSC-2) model were investigated.

Material and methods: Gene-expression modifications, determined using a comparative genome-wide expression-profiling strategy, were independently validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Additionally, cell cycle, cell growth and in vitro wound-healing assays were conducted.

Results: A set of 43 EMD-regulated genes was defined, which may be responsible for the reduced epithelial down-growth upon EMD application. Gene ontology analysis revealed genes that could be attributed to pathways of locomotion, developmental processes and associated processes such as regulation of cell size and cell growth. Additionally, eight regulated genes have previously been reported to take part in the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Several independent experimental assays revealed significant inhibition of cell migration, growth and cell cycle by EMD.

Conclusion: The set of EMD-regulated genes identified in this study offers the opportunity to clarify mechanisms underlying the effects of EMD on epithelial cells. Reduced epithelial repopulation of the dental root upon periodontal surgery may be the consequence of reduced migration and cell growth, as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Cycle / genetics
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Movement / genetics
  • Cell Proliferation
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Dental Enamel Proteins / pharmacology
  • Dental Enamel Proteins / physiology*
  • Epithelial Cells / chemistry*
  • Epithelial Cells / drug effects
  • Epithelial Cells / physiology
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Humans
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Regeneration / genetics*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Wound Healing / drug effects
  • Wound Healing / physiology


  • DNA, Complementary
  • Dental Enamel Proteins
  • enamel matrix proteins