Bronchiolitis Obliterans (BO) is an infrequent chronic and obstructive lung disease secondary to an insult to the terminal airway and its surroundings. In children, the most common presentation is the post-infectious variant, closely related to a severe viral infection in the first three years of life. However, the increase in the number of lung and bone-marrow transplants has also been followed by an increase in post-transplant BO. Post-transplant BO is progressive while post-infectious BO does not seem to be, but both forms share some common pathways that result in a characteristic histopathology of bronchiolar obliteration. This review covers up-to-date evidence on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans, including areas of controversy that need to be addressed in future studies.
Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.