Even with current standard-of-care therapies, the prognosis for patients with malignant gliomas is very poor and several new treatment modalities for glioblastomas are currently under investigation. Given the role of TGF-β in gliomas, anti-TGF-β strategies against gliomas are currently being investigated. Biodistribution of intravenously injected AF680-labeled 1D11, a pan-neutralizing TGF-β antibody, was monitored in mice bearing either subcutaneous or orthotopic gliomas using in vivo imaging and fluorescence microscopy. AF680-labeled 1D11 entered both the subcutaneous and intracranial tumors and the antibody was detected within the tumor tissue for several days whereas only low fluorescence was found in organs. The effects of 1D11 on subcutaneous versus orthotopic U87MG and GL261 gliomas in immunocompetent C57BL/6J versus immunodeficient CD1-Foxn1nu mice were observed by direct tumor size measurement, H&E staining and immunohistochemistry. Treatment of immunocompetent mice bearing subcutaneous GL261 tumors with 1D11 resulted in complete remission. In immune deficient mice, the growth of subcutaneous GL261 tumors was increased following treatment with 1D11. Intracranially implanted gliomas in C57Bl/6J mice showed no size reduction after 1D11 treatment but there was reduced invasion of the glioma cells into the adjacent normal brain. Together these data demonstrate that TGF-β plays different roles in combating the tumor depending on subcutaneous versus orthotopic implantation site.