Recent years has seen an increasing interest in the quality of life (QOL) of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of behavioral disorders and to assess the health-related QOL (HRQOL) in 136 patients with CKD. To estimate the prevalence of behavior disorders and analyze HRQOL, we used the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Pediatric Inventory of Quality of Life (PedsQL) Core Scales as assessment tools for both the patients and caregivers. When compared to healthy controls, the CKD group had significantly lower scores in almost all PedsQL domains. After adjustment, only absence of religion/other religions remained significantly associated with a lower global HRQOL score [odds ratio (OR) 6.2, P=0.009]. Among the parents, two factors remained significantly associated with a lower global HRQOL score: patients' age >10 years (OR 5.4, P=0.033) and absence of religion/other religions (OR 3.2, P=0.038). The CKD group demonstrated a higher proportion of behavioral and emotional disorders in all SDQ domains. There was a negative correlation between the presence of behavior and emotional disorders and HRQOL score (r= -0.552, P<0.001). Our findings suggest the importance of evaluating behavioral and social repercussions of CKD in order to improve the life quality of this pediatric population.