We report on three patients (two siblings and one unrelated) presenting in infancy with progressive muscle weakness and paralysis of the diaphragm. Metabolic studies revealed a profile of plasma acylcarnitines and urine organic acids suggestive of a mild form of the multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation defect (MADD, ethylmalonic/adipic acid syndrome). Subsequently, a profound flavin deficiency in spite of a normal dietary riboflavin intake was established in the plasma of all three children, suggesting a riboflavin transporter defect. Genetic analysis of these patients demonstrated mutations in the C20orf54 gene which encodes the human homolog of a rat riboflavin transporter. This gene was recently implicated in the Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, a rare neurological disorder which may either present in infancy with neurological deterioration with hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency and early death, or later in life with deafness and progressive ponto-bulbar palsy. Supplementation of riboflavin rapidly improved the clinical symptoms as well as the biochemical abnormalities in our patients, demonstrating that high dose riboflavin is a potential treatment for the Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome as well as for the Fazio Londe syndrome which is considered to be the same disease entity without the deafness.