Chronic and acute infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella Typhi: understanding the carrier state

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011 Jan;9(1):9-14. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2490. Epub 2010 Nov 29.


Despite major treatment and prevention efforts, millions of new typhoid infections occur worldwide each year. For a subset of infected individuals, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi colonizes the gall bladder and remains there long after symptoms subside, serving as a reservoir for the further spread of the disease. In this Progress article, we explore recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella spp.--predominantly S. Typhi--colonize and persist in the human gall bladder.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biofilms
  • Carrier State / microbiology*
  • Carrier State / transmission
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Gallbladder Diseases / drug therapy
  • Gallbladder Diseases / microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Salmonella Infections / microbiology*
  • Salmonella Infections / transmission
  • Salmonella typhi / isolation & purification*
  • Salmonella typhi / physiology