Premenstrual and menstrual symptomatology in young adult Japanese females who smoke tobacco

J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2011 Apr;37(4):325-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2010.01353.x. Epub 2010 Nov 28.


Aim: The present study examines the correlation between premenstrual and menstrual symptomatology and smoking status in young adult Japanese females.

Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess premenstrual and menstrual symptomatology using the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). Findings were compared between smokers and nonsmokers. The correlation between symptomatology and smoking status assessed by the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency (FTND) and the Reasons for Smoking Scale (RSS), which identifies smoker's motives, was determined.

Results: Data were obtained from 785 participants, including 71 smokers, 29 quitters and 685 nonsmokers. All smokers consumed 20 or fewer cigarettes per day with the exception of one heavy smoker. Smoking status affected the cycle of menstruation, but did not affect the duration. Smokers demonstrated more severe symptomatology than nonsmokers during the menstrual and premenstrual phases. Among smokers, premenstrual symptomatology was significantly more severe than menstrual symptomatology. Five premenstrual symptom groups (pain, concentration, water retention, behavior change and negative affect) were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. Overall MDQ scores and those of three subcategories (concentration, behavior change, and negative affect) during the premenstrual phase were significantly correlated with nicotine dependency and smoking motives. Smoking motives were also correlated with the severity of autonomic reaction.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that young adult Japanese females with a light smoking habit have severe premenstrual symptomatology, which was correlated with nicotine dependency and smoking motives.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Menstruation Disturbances / epidemiology*
  • Premenstrual Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / complications*
  • Young Adult