Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate root canal morphology of maxillary second premolars in an Indian population.
Materials and methods: Two hundred maxillary second premolars were collected, stained, decalcified, and cleared. Cleared teeth were examined in a steromicroscope under 7.5× magnification and the following observations were made: (1) length of the teeth, (2) number of root canals, (3) root canal configuration by Vertucci's classification, (4)number of isthmi between the canals, (5) frequency of apical deltas.
Results: Of the two hundred maxillary second premolars, 64.1% had one root canal at the apex and 35.4 % had two root canals at the apex. The average length of the teeth was 21.5 mm. Concerning the canal morphology, 33.6% of the teeth exhibited Vertucci type II configuration followed by type IV pattern (31.1%); 29.2% of the teeth possessed type I pattern. An additional canal configuration type XIX was found in one tooth. Isthmi and apical deltas was found in 19% and 14% of the cases, respectively.
Conclusion: The root canal morphology of Maxillary second premolars can be complex and requires careful evaluation prior to endodontic therapy.
Keywords: Apical delta; Vertucci’s classification; decalcification and staining; maxillary second premolar; root canal morphology.