Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL) with advanced stage and aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL) are highly aggressive neoplasms with a dismal clinical outcome. It is well known that P-glycoprotein, which is a product of MDR1 gene and related to multi-drug resistance, is expressed on tumor cells of ENKL or ANKL. This is a major reason for the refractoriness to conventional chemotherapeutic regimens for malignant lymphoma containing anthracycline. However, recent studies have identified that several drugs including L: -asparaginase, methotrexate and alkylators show excellent effect for these tumors. The SMILE (steroid, methotrexate, ifosfamide, L: -asparaginase and etoposide) regimen is one of the promising regimens for advanced or relapsed/refractory ENKL, but its myelotoxicity is strong. ANKL needs another treatment strategy because of a systemic disease progression and extensive organ insufficiency. Optimal treatment scheme using such effective agents for these unfavorable NK-cell tumors should further be explored.