Objective: To identify and describe clinicopathologic prognostic factors in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical resection with curative intent.
Patients and methods: The study cohort consisted of 796 patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, or gastric cardia who underwent complete tumor resection at Mayo Clinic from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 1997. We reviewed individual patient medical records and abstracted demographic, pathologic, perioperative, and cancer outcome data. Median follow-up for vital status and disease recurrence was 12.8 and 5.8 years, respectively.
Results: Univariate analysis revealed the following factors to be statistically associated with worse 5-year disease-specific survival: higher N and T status, higher tumor grade, age older than 76 years, and the presence of extracapsular lymph node extension and signet ring cells. The following factors remained significantly linked with worse 5-year disease-specific survival on multivariate analysis: higher N and T status, grade, and age and the absence of preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Anatomic location of tumor was not associated with differential prognosis. Lymph node metastases were found in 25 (27%) of 93 T1b tumors, 397 (85%) of 468 T3 tumors, and 22 (67%) of 33 T4a tumors. Disease-specific survival was better in T3-4N0 than in T1bN1-3 carcinomas (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.89, adjusted for grade and age; P=.02).
Conclusion: Our results confirm the importance of T and N status and tumor grade and suggest that age may affect prognosis. In addition, we show that a significant proportion of superficial esophageal adenocarcinomas exhibit regional metastases and have worse prognosis than more invasive nonmetastatic tumors.