Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Israel, and in the past, has been attributed almost exclusively to Leishmania major. Over the last decade or so, an increase in Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) infections has occurred in several regions of Israel. Topical treatment of Old World CL is usually the rule, however, in some cases systemic treatment is indicated. Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) is efficacious and safe for treating visceral leishmaniasis but its role in treating various forms of CL is yet to be defined. In this study, we summarize the efficacy and safety of L-AmB treatment in a series of Israeli patients with L. tropica infection.
Methods: Cases of PCR-proven CL caused by L. tropica were treated in an outpatient setting. Treatment schedule consisted of five consecutive days of 3 mg/kg L-AmB, followed by a sixth dose on day 10.
Results: Thirteen consecutive patients (11 men, two women), received L-AmB. Mean age was 15.3 years; of the 13 patients, 85% had facial lesions. Six had previously failed intralesional sodium stibogluconate treatment and four had failed topical paromomycin treatment. Eleven of 13 patients (84%) achieved complete clinical cure within 2 months. Mean follow-up of 11 months revealed no relapses. Side effects were mild and none terminated treatment prematurely.
Limitations: A non-randomized study, with a small number of patients.
Conclusion: Liposomal amphotericin B treatment for L. tropica is effective, well tolerated and cost beneficial in countries where cost of hospital-care is significant.
© 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.