Prognostic vs predictive molecular biomarkers in colorectal cancer: is KRAS and BRAF wild type status required for anti-EGFR therapy?

Cancer Treat Rev. 2010 Nov;36 Suppl 3:S56-61. doi: 10.1016/S0305-7372(10)70021-9.

Abstract

An important molecular target for metastatic CRC treatment is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Many potential biomarkers predictive of response to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (cetuximab and panitumumab) have been retrospectively evaluated, including EGFR activation markers and EGFR ligands activation markers. With regard to the "negative predictive factors" responsible for primary or intrinsic resistance to anti-EGFR antibodies a lot of data are now available. Among these, KRAS mutations have emerged as a major predictor of resistance to panitumumab or cetuximab in the clinical setting and several studies of patients receiving first and subsequent lines of treatment have shown that those with tumors carrying KRAS mutations do not respond to EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies or show any survival benefit from such treatments. The role of B-RAF mutations, mutually exclusive with KRAS mutations, in predicting resistance to anti-EGFR mAbs is not yet consolidated. It therefore appears that BRAF mutations may play a strong negative prognostic role and only a slight role in resistance to anti-EGFR Abs.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic / drug effects
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics*
  • Cetuximab
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics*
  • ErbB Receptors / drug effects*
  • ErbB Receptors / immunology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Mutation*
  • PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics
  • Panitumumab
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • ras Proteins / genetics*

Substances

  • Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • KRAS protein, human
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Panitumumab
  • ErbB Receptors
  • BRAF protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • TPTE protein, human
  • PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • ras Proteins
  • Cetuximab