Objective: To test the hypothesis that first re-treatment with infliximab, compared with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), might improve outcomes in IVIG-resistant Kawasaki disease.
Study design: In a two-center retrospective review from January 2000 to March 2008, we compared duration of fever and coronary artery dimensions in patients with IVIG-resistance whose first re-treatment was with IVIG compared with infliximab given for fever ≥38.0°C beyond 36 hours after first IVIG completion.
Results: Patients in the IVIG group (n = 86, 2 g/kg) and infliximab group (n = 20, 5 mg/kg) were similar in demographics, days of fever at diagnosis, and baseline coronary artery dimensions. Patients had similar coronary dimensions 6 weeks after diagnosis, both in univariate and multivariate analysis. The infliximab group had fewer days of fever (median 8 days versus10 days, P = .028), and in a multivariate analysis, the infliximab group had 1.2 fewer days of fever (P = .033). Patients who received infliximab had shorter lengths of hospitalization (median 5.5 days versus 6 days, P = .040). Treatment groups did not differ significantly in adverse events (0% versus 2.3%, P = 1.0).
Conclusions: In our retrospective study, patients with IVIG-resistant Kawasaki disease whose first re-treatment was with infliximab, compared with IVIG, had faster resolution of fever and fewer days of hospitalization. Coronary artery outcomes and adverse events were similar; the power of the study was limited.
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