Prevalence of tobacco use and association between cardiometabolic risk factors and cigarette smoking in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus

J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):594-601.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.10.011. Epub 2010 Dec 3.


Objectives: To examine prevalence of tobacco use and coexistence of cardiometabolic risk factors according to smoking status in youth with diabetes mellitus.

Study design: Youth aged 10 to 22 years who participated in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study (n = 3466) were surveyed about their tobacco use and examined for cardiometabolic risk factors: waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, and lipid profile.

Results: The prevalence of tobacco use in youth aged 10 to 14 years, 15 to 19 years, and ≥20 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus was 2.7%, 17.1%, and 34.0%, respectively, and the prevalence in youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus was 5.5%, 16.4%, and 40.3%, respectively. Smoking was more likely in youth with annual family incomes <$50 000, regardless of diabetes mellitus type. Cigarette smoking was associated with higher odds of high triglyceride levels and physical inactivity in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Less than 50% of youth aged 10 to 14 years (52.2% of participants) reported having ever been counseled by their healthcare provider to not smoke or to stop smoking.

Conclusions: Tobacco use is prevalent in youth with diabetes mellitus. Aggressive tobacco prevention and cessation programs should be a high priority to prevent or delay the development of cardiovascular disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Child
  • Counseling / statistics & numerical data
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Risk-Taking
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Young Adult


  • Triglycerides