Genome-wide association study of blood pressure response to methylphenidate treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Mar 30;35(2):466-72. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.11.037. Epub 2010 Dec 2.


Objective: We conducted a genome-wide association study of blood pressure in an open-label study of the methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Method: Genotyping was conducted with the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. Multivariate association analyses were conducted using the software package PLINK. After data cleaning and quality control we tested 316,934 SNPs in 140 children with ADHD.

Results: We observed no genome-wide statistically significant findings, but a SNP in a K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger expressed in vascular smooth muscle (SLC24A3) was included in our top associations at p<1E-04. Genetic enrichment analyses of genes with ≥1 SNP significant at p<0.01, implicated several functional categories (FERM domain, p=5.0E-07; immunoglobulin domain, p=8.1E-06; the transmembrane region, p=4.4E-05; channel activity, p=2.0E-04; and type-III fibronectins, p=2.7E-05) harboring genes previously associated with related cardiovascular phenotypes.

Conclusions: The hypothesis generating results from this study suggests that polymorphisms in several genes consistently associated with cardiovascular diseases may impact changes in blood pressure observed with methylphenidate pharmacotherapy in children with ADHD.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase IV
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Cutaneous
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / drug therapy*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / genetics
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / physiopathology*
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / administration & dosage
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / adverse effects
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / pharmacology
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Interactions / genetics
  • Female
  • Genome, Human
  • Genome-Wide Association Study*
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / chemically induced*
  • Male
  • Methylphenidate / administration & dosage
  • Methylphenidate / adverse effects
  • Methylphenidate / pharmacology
  • Methylphenidate / therapeutic use*
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Sodium-Calcium Exchanger / metabolism


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • SLC24A3 protein, human
  • Sodium-Calcium Exchanger
  • Methylphenidate