Development and validation of the Memory Orientation Screening Test (MOST™): A better screening test for dementia

Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2010 Dec;25(8):650-6. doi: 10.1177/1533317510386216.


Objectives: Accurate, economical identification of cognitive impairment would increase dementia detection and improve care of older patients.

Design: Analysis of archival neuropsychological data combined 3-word recall, time orientation, list memory, and clock drawing into the Memory Orientation Screening Test (MOST ™). The MOST was compared with Folstein Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Mini-Cog to detect dementia presence and severity, and convergence with standardized neuropsychological tests. Internal consistency, retest reliabilities, completion likelihood, and time costs were calculated.

Results: The MOST was significantly more sensitive than MMSE or Mini-Cog, twice as accurate as MMSE for identifying mild dementia, better correlated with standardized memory tests, more reliable over time, and minimally related to depression.

Conclusions: The MOST is routinely administered in less than 5 minutes by a medical assistant, more accurately identifies dementia and severity than current screening tests, and emulates longer memory testing, making it valuable for Annual Wellness Visits and many applied clinical settings.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alzheimer Disease / diagnosis*
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / methods*
  • Mass Screening / statistics & numerical data
  • Memory Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Neuropsychological Tests / standards*
  • Neuropsychological Tests / statistics & numerical data
  • Observer Variation
  • Orientation
  • Reproducibility of Results