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. 2010 Dec 3;15(12):8813-26.
doi: 10.3390/molecules15128813.

Phenolic-compound-extraction Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Samples

Free PMC article

Phenolic-compound-extraction Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Samples

Patricia Garcia-Salas et al. Molecules. .
Free PMC article


This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but it requires long extraction times, giving rise to possible extract degradation. Likewise, solid-phase extraction (SPE) can be used in liquid samples. Modern techniques, which have been replacing conventional ones, include: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). These alternative techniques reduce considerably the use of solvents and accelerate the extraction process.

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