We have demonstrated inducible expression of the mRNA encoding the monocyte chemoattractant MCP-1, the human homolog of the JE gene, in endothelial cells within 3 hours of treatment with IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor. IFN-gamma also induced expression of this mRNA after 24 hours, but to a lesser extent. MCP-1/JE protein steadily accumulated in the medium of endothelial cells during a 48-hour exposure to IL-1 beta. Medium conditioned by IL-1 beta-treated endothelial cells contained monocyte chemoattractant activity that was immunoadsorbed by anti-MCP-1 antibodies. These results suggest that endothelial cells secrete a monocyte chemoattractant, MCP-1/JE, in response to inflammatory mediators, and thus may contribute to the accumulation of monocytes at sites of inflammation.