Induction of unnatural immunity: prospects for a broadly protective universal influenza vaccine

Nat Med. 2010 Dec;16(12):1389-91. doi: 10.1038/nm1210-1389.


The immune system normally responds to influenza virus by making neutralizing antibodies to regions of the viral spike, the hemagglutinin, that vary year to year. This natural response protects against circulating subtypes but necessitates production of new vaccines annually. Newer vaccine approaches have succeeded in eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies to highly conserved yet vulnerable regions of the hemagglutinin and suggest potential pathways for the development of universal influenza vaccines.

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / genetics
  • Conserved Sequence / genetics*
  • Cross Protection / genetics*
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Genetic Variation
  • Hemagglutinins, Viral / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines / genetics*
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Models, Molecular*
  • Phylogeny
  • Species Specificity


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Hemagglutinins, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines