Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motoneurons. We have recently uncovered a new neurotrophic growth factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), which protects α-motoneurons, improves functional outcome, and increases life expectancy of SOD-1 (G93A) mice when delivered subcutaneously. However, chronic systemic delivery of G-CSF is complicated by elevation of neutrophilic granulocytes. Here, we used adeno-associated virus (AAV) to directly target and confine G-CSF expression to the spinal cord. Whereas intramuscular injection of AAV failed to transduce motoneurons retrogradely, and caused a high systemic load of G-CSF, intraspinal delivery led to a highly specific enrichment of G-CSF in the spinal cord with moderate peripheral effects. Intraspinal delivery improved motor functions, delayed disease progression, and increased survival by 10%, longer than after systemic delivery. Mechanistically, we could show that G-CSF in addition to rescuing motoneurons improved neuromuscular junction (NMJ) integrity and enhanced motor axon regeneration after nerve crush injury. Collectively, our results show that intraspinal delivery improves efficacy of G-CSF treatment in an ALS mouse model while minimizing the systemic load of G-CSF, suggesting a new therapeutic option for ALS treatment.