Soil rhizospheric metaproteomics is a powerful scientific tool to uncover the interactions between plants and microorganisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study established an extraction method suitable for different soils that could increase the extracted protein content. Close to 1000 separate spots with high reproducibility could be identified in the stained 2-DE gels. Among the spots, 189 spots representing 122 proteins on a 2-DE gel of rice soil samples were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. These proteins mainly originated from rice and microorganisms. They were involved in protein, energy, nucleotide, and secondary metabolisms, as well as signal transduction and resistance. Three characteristics of the crop rhizospheric metaproteomics seemed apparent: (1) approximately one-third of the protein spots could not be identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF/MS, (2) the conservative proteins from plants formed a feature distribution of crop rhizospheric metaproteome, and (3) there were very complex interactions between plants and microorganisms existing in a crop rhizospheric soil. Further functional analysis on the identified proteins unveiled various metabolic pathways and signal transductions involved in the soil biotic community. This study provides a paradigm for metaproteomic research on soil biology.