Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated along different lineages, providing the possibility of a precise analysis of genes profiles associated with specific commitments. Subtractive gene expression profiling between differentiated and undifferentiated cells provides lists of potential actors in this commitment. This combines, however, genes that are specifically associated with development and others that are over expressed because of nonlineage-specific differentiation systems. As a way to establish gene profiles associated with the neural and/or to the mesodermal commitments of human embryonic stem cells more precisely, we have carried out a 2-step analysis. We first performed a subtractive analysis of gene profiles of each of these lineages as compared to the undifferentiated stage. Then, we extended the analysis by comparing the 2 sets of results with each other. This strategy has allowed us to eliminate large numbers of genes that were over expressed in both sets of results and to uniquely associate different gene networks with either the neural or the mesodermal commitments.