In this study, we performed immunohistochemistry for somatostatin (SS), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and parvalbumin (PV) in LiCl-pilocarpine-treated rats to observe quantitative changes and axonal sprouting of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus, especially in the sclerotic hippocampus. Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) was performed to detect the specific degeneration of GABAergic interneurons. Compared with age-matched control rats, there were fewer SS/NPY/PV-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hilus of the sclerotic hippocampus in pilocarpine-treated rats; hilar dentritic inhibitory interneurons were most vulnerable. FJB stain revealed degeneration was evident at 2 months after status epilepticus. Some SS-IR and NPY-IR interneurons were also stained for FJB, but there was no evidence of degeneration of PV-IR interneurons. Axonal sprouting of GABAergic interneurons was present in the hippocampus of epileptic rats, and a dramatic increase of SS-IR fibers was observed throughout all layers of CA1 region in the sclerotic hippocampus. These results confirm selective loss and degeneration of a specific subset of GABAergic interneurons in specific subfields of the hippocampus. Axonal sprouting of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, especially numerous increase of SS-IR neutrophils within CA1 region of the sclerotic hippocampus, may constitute the aberrant inhibitory circum and play a significant role in the generation and compensation of temporal lobe epilepsy.