We report the successful control of an outbreak caused by imipenem-resistant VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (IR-Kp) in France. This outbreak occurred in a care centre for abdominal surgery that includes a 15-bed liver intensive care unit and performs more than 130 liver transplantations per year. The index case was a patient with acute liver failure transferred from a hospital in Greece for urgent liver transplantation who was carrying IR-Kp at admission as revealed by routine culture of a rectal swab. Infection control measures were undertaken and included contact isolation and promotion of hand hygiene with alcohol-based hand rub solution. Nevertheless, secondary IR-Kp cases were identified during the six following months from 3 December 2003 to 2 June 2004. From 2 June to 21 October, extended infection control measures were set up, such as cohorting IR-Kp carriers, contact patients and new patients in distinct sections with dedicated staff, limiting ward admission, and strict control of patient transfer. They led to a rapid control of the outbreak. The global attack rate of the IR-Kp outbreak was 2.5%, 13% in liver transplant patients and 0.4% in the other patients in the care centre (p<0.005). Systematic screening for IR-Kp of all patients admitted to the care centre is still maintained to date and no secondary IR-Kp case has been detected since 2 June 2004.