An outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae type 2 was detected in September 2009 in two hospitals in a suburb south of Paris, France. In total, 13 KPC-producing K. pneumoniae type 2 cases (four with infections and nine with digestive-tract colonisations) were identified, including a source case transferred from a Greek hospital. Of the 13 cases, seven were secondary cases associated with use of a contaminated duodenoscope used to examine the source case (attack rate: 41%) and five were secondary cases associated with patient-to-patient transmission in hospital. All isolated strains from the 13 patients: (i) exhibited resistance to all antibiotics except gentamicin and colistin, (ii) were more resistant to ertapenem (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) always greater than 4 mg/L) than to imipenem (MIC: 1–8 mg/L, depending on the isolate), (iii) carried the blaKPC-2 and blaSHV12 genes and (iv) had an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. These cases occurred in three hospitals: some were transferred to four other hospitals. Extended infection control measures implemented in the seven hospitals included: (i) limiting transfer of cases and contact patients to other wards, (ii) cohorting separately cases and contact patients, (iii) reinforcing hand hygiene and contact precautions and (iv) systematic screening of contact patients. Overall, 341 contact patients were screened. A year after the outbreak, no additional case has been identified in these seven hospitals. This outbreak emphasises the importance of rapid identification and notification of emerging highly resistant K. pneumoniae strains in order to implement reinforced control measures.