Hematopoietic cell transplantation is becoming an increasingly common treatment modality for a variety of diseases. However, patient survival may be limited by substantial treatment-related toxicities, including acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI can develop in approximately 70% of patients posttransplant and is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The development of AKI varies depending on the type of conditioning regimen used and the donor cells infused at the time of transplant, and the etiology often is multifactorial. Epidemiology, risk factors for development, pathogenesis, and potential treatment options for AKI in the hematopoietic cell transplantation population are reviewed as well as newer data on early markers of renal injury. As the indications for and number of transplants performed each year increases, nephrologists and oncologists will have to work together to identify patients who are at risk for AKI to both prevent its development and initiate therapy early to improve outcomes.
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