The Nutriceutical Bovine Colostrum Truncates the Increase in Gut Permeability Caused by Heavy Exercise in Athletes

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011 Mar;300(3):G477-84. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00281.2010. Epub 2010 Dec 9.

Abstract

Heavy exercise causes gut symptoms and, in extreme cases, "heat stroke" partially due to increased intestinal permeability of luminal toxins. We examined bovine colostrum, a natural source of growth factors, as a potential moderator of such effects. Twelve volunteers completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover protocol (14 days colostrum/placebo) prior to standardized exercise. Gut permeability utilized 5 h urinary lactulose-to-rhamnose ratios. In vitro studies (T84, HT29, NCM460 human colon cell lines) examined colostrum effects on temperature-induced apoptosis (active caspase-3 and 9, Baxα, Bcl-2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and epithelial electrical resistance. In both study arms, exercise increased blood lactate, heart rate, core temperature (mean 1.4°C rise) by similar amounts. Gut hormone profiles were similar in both arms although GLP-1 levels rose following exercise in the placebo but not the colostrum arm (P = 0.026). Intestinal permeability in the placebo arm increased 2.5-fold following exercise (0.38 ± 0.012 baseline, to 0.92 ± 0.014, P < 0.01), whereas colostrum truncated rise by 80% (0.38 ± 0.012 baseline to 0.49 ± 0.017) following exercise. In vitro apoptosis increased by 47-65% in response to increasing temperature by 2°C. This effect was truncated by 60% if colostrum was present (all P < 0.01). Similar results were obtained examining epithelial resistance (colostrum truncated temperature-induced fall in resistance by 64%, P < 0.01). Colostrum increased HSP70 expression at both 37 and 39°C (P < 0.001) and was truncated by addition of an EGF receptor-neutralizing antibody. Temperature-induced increase in Baxα and reduction in Bcl-2 was partially reversed by presence of colostrum. Colostrum may have value in enhancing athletic performance and preventing heat stroke.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism
  • Athletes*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Cattle
  • Colostrum / metabolism*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Electric Impedance
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones / blood
  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism
  • HT29 Cells
  • Heat Stroke / etiology
  • Heat Stroke / metabolism
  • Heat Stroke / prevention & control*
  • Hot Temperature
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism*
  • Intestines / pathology
  • Lactic Acid / blood
  • Lactose / urine
  • Male
  • Permeability
  • Physical Exertion*
  • Placebo Effect
  • Pregnancy
  • Rhamnose / urine
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Biomarkers
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones
  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Lactic Acid
  • Lactose
  • Rhamnose