Dose adjustment of anaesthetics in the morbidly obese

Br J Anaesth. 2010 Dec;105 Suppl 1:i16-23. doi: 10.1093/bja/aeq312.

Abstract

Anaesthesiologists must be prepared to deal with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PD) differences in morbidly obese individuals. As drug administration based on total body weight can result in overdose, weight-based dosing scalars must be considered. Conversely, administration of drugs based on ideal body weight can result in a sub-therapeutic dose. Changes in cardiac output and alterations in body composition affect the distribution of numerous anaesthetic drugs. With the exception of neuromuscular antagonists, lean body weight is the optimal dosing scalar for most drugs used in anaesthesia including opioids and anaesthetic induction agents. The increased incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea and fat deposition in the pharynx and chest wall places the morbidly obese at increased risk for adverse respiratory events secondary to anaesthetic agents, thus altering the PD properties of these drugs. Awareness of the pharmacology of the commonly used anaesthetic agents including induction agents, opioids, inhalation agents and neuromuscular blockers is necessary for safe and effective care of morbidly obese patients.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage
  • Analgesics, Opioid / pharmacokinetics
  • Anesthetics / administration & dosage*
  • Anesthetics / pharmacokinetics
  • Body Weight / physiology
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / administration & dosage
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / pharmacokinetics
  • Neuromuscular Blocking Agents / administration & dosage
  • Neuromuscular Blocking Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Obesity, Morbid / metabolism*
  • Obesity, Morbid / physiopathology

Substances

  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Anesthetics
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Neuromuscular Blocking Agents