Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy is an emerging technology that aims to improve the process of tissue repair through local delivery of autologous bioactive agents to influence critical physiological mechanisms such as inflammation, angiogenesis, or extracellular matrix synthesis. These biological properties have prompted the therapeutic administration of PRP in orthopedics and sports medicine. Given its biocompatibility and healing properties, percutaneous injections of PRP are used in athletes to treat tendon and muscle injuries. Studies of varying levels of evidence have demonstrated the safety and beneficial effects of PRP in these applications, but standardization of the methods of plasma preparation and procedures for application is necessary for further advancements. Continued efforts to identify factors that influence the biological response to PRP treatment may yield new formulations tailored to each specific application. The growing emphasis on an evidence-based approach in the sports medicine setting demands additional research efforts before incorporating this technology in routine clinical care.