Purpose of review: The aim is to review transient ischaemic attack (TIA) clinics, other service delivery models, and current TIA management.
Recent findings: Urgent assessment of TIA patients by stroke specialist services reduces stroke risk and is cost-effective. Almost one-third of TIA patients wait more than 24 h before presenting to medical attention, with delay associated with higher stroke risk. Risk stratification following suspected TIA may be performed by clinical assessment of individual patient characteristics, combined with the validated ABCD2 score (pre-investigation), and the ABCD3-I score (postinvestigation) in secondary care settings. Brain MRI and transcranial Doppler ultrasound add information related to vascular territory, TIA mechanism, and prognosis. Variability in systolic blood pressure in treated and untreated patients is an important predictor of stroke risk, independently of mean blood pressure.
Summary: Daily specialist-provided TIA services delivered in clinic or inpatient settings have proven efficacy for stroke prevention. In addition, a rapid-access, clinic-based service is associated with cost savings and reduced hospital bed-day utilization after TIA.