Racial/ethnic differences in smoking, other risk factors, and low birth weight among low-income pregnant women, 1978-1988

MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 1990 Jul;39(3):13-21.


Because of the adverse effects of low birth weight (LBW) on infant morbidity and mortality, one of the 1990 health objectives for the nation has been to reduce the incidence of LBW to 5% among all live births in the United States. Public health surveillance of cigarette smoking during pregnancy has demonstrated an association between smoking and an increased risk of LBW, defined as birth weight of less than 2,500 g. For the period 1978-1988, information on nearly 248,000 women from CDC's Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System showed an LBW rate of 6.9%, a high prevalence of smoking during pregnancy (29.7%); and a strong association between smoking during pregnancy and the likelihood of delivering an LBW infant in all age, racial/ethnic, and prepregnancy weight groups. The risk of LBW was greater for smokers than for nonsmokers (9.9% versus 5.7%), creating an excess LBW risk of 4.2% associated with smoking. Overall, the average birth-weight deficit related to smoking was 178 g. Among both smokers and nonsmokers, black women had a higher percentage of LBW infants than did white women, and the risk of LBW related to smoking was greater among black women. That risk tended to increase with age, especially among women with low pregravid weight. Major reductions in LBW might be achieved if smoking were eliminated among pregnant women.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Ethnic Groups / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Low Birth Weight*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Pregnancy / physiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States / epidemiology