Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic disorder in women. To identify causative genes, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PCOS in Han Chinese. The discovery set included 744 PCOS cases and 895 controls; subsequent replications involved two independent cohorts (2,840 PCOS cases and 5,012 controls from northern Han Chinese; 498 cases and 780 controls from southern and central Han Chinese). We identified strong evidence of associations between PCOS and three loci: 2p16.3 (rs13405728; combined P-value by meta-analysis P(meta) = 7.55 × 10⁻²¹, odds ratio (OR) 0.71); 2p21 (rs13429458, P(meta) = 1.73 × 10⁻²³, OR 0.67); and 9q33.3 (rs2479106, P(meta) = 8.12 × 10⁻¹⁹, OR 1.34). These findings provide new insight into the pathogenesis of PCOS. Follow-up studies of the candidate genes in these regions are recommended.