Rapid decrease of intracellular pH associated with inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger precedes apoptotic events in the MNK45 and MNK74 gastric cancer cell lines treated with 2-aminophenoxazine-3-one

Oncol Rep. 2011 Feb;25(2):341-6. doi: 10.3892/or.2010.1082. Epub 2010 Dec 8.


The effects of Phx-3 on changes in intracellular pH (pHi) in the MKN45 and MKN74 human gastric cancer cell lines were evaluated in order to determine the mechanism for the proapoptotic effects of 2-aminophenoxazine-3-one (Phx-3) on these cells. Phx-3 (100 μM) reduced pHi in MKN45 from 7.45 to 5.8, and in MKN74 from 7.5 to 6.2 within 1 min of engagement with these cells. Such a decrease of pHi was closely correlated with the dose of this phenoxazine and continued for 4 h. The activity of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform l (NHE1), which is involved in H+ extrusion from the cells, was dose-dependently suppressed by Phx-3 in these cells, and was greatly suppressed in the presence of 100 μM Phx-3. This result indicates that the decrease of pHi in MKN45 and MKN74 cells is closely associated with the inhibition of NHE1 in these cells. The morphology of these cells at 24 h after treatment with Phx-3 indicated shrinkage of the cells and condensation of the nuclear chromatin structure, which are characteristic of the apoptotic events in these gastric cancer cells. Cytotoxicity of Phx-3 against MKN45 and MKN74 cells was extensive because almost all MKN45 cells lost viability at 24 h in the presence of 20 μM Phx-3, and nearly 50% of the MKN74 cells lost viability in the presence of 50 μM Phx-3. These results suggest that rapid and extensive decrease of pHi in human gastric cancer MKN45 and MKN74 cells caused by Phx-3 might disturb intracellular homeostasis, leading to apoptotic and cytotoxic events in these cells. Phx-3 is a good candidate for therapeutics of gastric cancer that is intractable to conventional chemopreventive therapies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Apoptosis / physiology
  • Carcinoma / metabolism
  • Carcinoma / pathology*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration / drug effects
  • Intracellular Space / drug effects
  • Intracellular Space / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Oxazines / pharmacology*
  • Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers / physiology
  • Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Time Factors


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Oxazines
  • Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers
  • 3-aminophenoxazone