The vitamin D(3) receptor in the context of the nuclear receptor superfamily : The central role of the retinoid X receptor

Endocrine. 1996 Apr;4(2):91-105. doi: 10.1007/BF02782754.


The nuclear hormone 1 α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (VD) is an important regulator of calcium homeostasis and is also a modulator of the cell cycle. The genomic actions of the hormone are mediated by a single transcription factor, the vitamin D(3) receptor (VDR). On the majority of the known VD response elements, VDR binds as heterodimeric complex with the retinoid X receptor (RXR), which is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily like VDR. RXR supports not only the DNA binding affinity and specificity of VDR, but allosterically also its transactivation properties. Moreover RXR is a partner in other hormone response systems, which supports the idea that the different nuclear hormone signaling pathways are functionally linked.