Sequential intravesical chemoimmunotherapy with mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guérin and with bacillus Calmette-Guérin alone in patients with carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder: results of an EORTC genito-urinary group randomized phase 2 trial (30993)

Eur Urol. 2011 Mar;59(3):438-46. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2010.11.038. Epub 2010 Dec 7.


Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the intravesical treatment of choice for carcinoma in situ (CIS).

Objective: Our aim was to assess if sequential mitomycin C (MMC) plus BCG after transurethral resection (TUR) is worthy of further study in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with CIS.

Design, setting, and participants: In a noncomparative phase 2 study, 96 patients with primary/secondary/concurrent CIS of the urinary bladder were randomized to sequential MMC plus BCG or to BCG alone after TUR.

Intervention: Patients received six weekly instillations of MMC followed by six weekly instillations of BCG or six weekly instillations of BCG, 3 wk rest, and three further weekly instillations of BCG. Complete responders received three weekly maintenance instillations at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 mo in accordance with the initial randomization.

Measurements: End points were complete response (CR) rate at the first control cystoscopy 16-18 wk after start of treatment, disease-free interval, overall survival, and side effects.

Results and limitations: Ninety-six patients were randomized, 48 to each treatment group. Ten patients were ineligible, and three did not start treatment. In all randomized patients, CR rates on MMC plus BCG and BCG alone were 70.8% and 66.7%, respectively. In 83 eligible patients who started treatment, CR rates were 75.6% and 73.8%, respectively. Based on a median follow-up of 4.7 yr, 25 patients (52.1%) on MMC plus BCG and 22 patients (45.8%) on BCG alone were disease free. Twelve patients stopped treatment due to toxicity: three during induction (two MMC plus BCG, one BCG) and nine during maintenance (three MMC plus BCG, six BCG).

Conclusions: In the treatment of patients with CIS, sequential chemoimmunotherapy with MMC plus BCG had acceptable toxicity. CR and disease-free rates were similar to those on BCG alone and to previous publications on sequential chemoimmunotherapy.

Trial registration: This study was registered with the US National Cancer Institute clinical trials database (protocol ID: EORTC-30993).

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intravesical
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use
  • BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use*
  • Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy*
  • Carcinoma in Situ / mortality
  • Carcinoma in Situ / surgery*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitomycin / therapeutic use*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality
  • Survival Analysis
  • Transurethral Resection of Prostate
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery*


  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
  • BCG Vaccine
  • Mitomycin